Statistics about Internet Voting in Estonia

I-voting was first introduced during the local elections of 2005, when more than 9 thousand voters cast their ballot via the Internet (this corresponded to about 2 per cent of all participating voters). Today, I-voting with binding results has been carried out eight times in Estonia:
  • in the local elections in October 2005, October 2009 and October 2013
  • the parliamentary elections in March 2007, March 2011 and March 2015
  • the European Parliament elections in June 2009 and May 2014

In the parliamentary elections in 2007, about 30,000 voters used this voting method. (This number corresponds to 5 per cent of the participating voters). In the European Parliament elections in 2009 the number of I-voters had almost doubled – more than 58,000 voters used this method (this corresponded to about 15 per cent of all participating voters). In the local elections that took place on 18 October 2009, I-voting was used as a voting method for the fourth time, and there were about 104,000 I-voters (about 16 per cent of all participating voters). 140,846 I-voters used this voting method in the parliamentary elections of 2011. In 2013 local elections more than 133,000 voters voted online. This number corresponds to about 22 per cent of the participating voters. In European Parliament elections in 2014, more than 103,000 voters used I-voting – that is 31% of all voters. Please see Table 1.

Table 1. General Statistics
 
 
Local Elections 2005
Parlia-mentary Elections 2007
European Parliament Elections 2009
Local Elections 2009
Parlia-mentary Elections 2011
Local Elections 2013
European Parliament Elections 2014 Parlia-mentary Elections 2015
Eligible voters
1 059 292
897 243
909 628
1 094 317
913 346
1 086 935
902 873 899 793
Participating voters (voters turned out)
502 504
 555 463
399 181
662 813
580 264
630 050 
329 766 577 910
Voter turnout
47,4%
61,9%
43,9%
60,6%
63,5%
58,0% 
36,5% 64,2%
I-voters
9 317
30 275
58 669
104 413
140 846
133 808 
103 151 176 491
I-votes counted
9 287
30 243
58 614
104 313
140 764
133 662 
103 105 176 329
I-votes cancelled
(replaced with paper ballot)
30
32
55
100
82
146 
46 162
I-votes invalid (not valid due to a nonstandard of vote)  n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.** 1 n.a. 1
Multiple I-votes (replaced with I-vote)
364
789
910
2 373
4 384
3 045 
2 019 4 593
I-voters among eligible voters
0,9%
3,4%
6,5%
9,5%
15,4%
12,3% 
11,4% 19,6%
I-voters among participating voters
1,9%
5,5%
14,7%
15,8%
24,3%
21,2% 
31,3% 30,5%
I-votes among advance votes
7,2%
17,6%
45,4%
44%
56,4%
50,5% 
59,2% 59,6%
I-votes cast abroad among I-votes (based on IP-address)*
n.a.
2% 
51 states
3% 
66 states
2,8% 
82 states

3,9%
105 states

4,2%
105 states 
4,69%
98 states
5,71%
116 states
I-voting periood
3 days
3 days
7 days
7 days
7 days
7 days 
7 days 7 days
I-voters using mobile-ID
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2 690
11 753 
11 609 22 084
I-voters using mobile-ID among I-voters
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
1,9%
8,6% 
11,0% 12,2%
Share of I-votes that were verified by the voter n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 3,4% 4,0% 4,3%
 * in Local Elections, voters permanently residing abroad are not eligible for voting
** one invalid vote is depicted among cancelled votes 
 
Diagram 1. I-Voters by Days
 
Diagram 2. I-Voters by Age
 
Diagram 3. I-Voters by Gender
 

 

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